According to the Frederick Taylor it develops the rules of motion, standard of working, proper working or how to do work safely. The main thing is to select the right workers for job those have ability to do that work. after that tained the workers and provide them proper incentives. Employer has to support workers by carefully planning and helping them to remove the obstacles.
This theory was developed by a German sociologist and political economist Max Weber (1864-1920).He suggested that the organisation has a well-defined authority and all the workers has to follow strictly rules and regulations.
Division of labour and specialization.All the workers have responsibilities in an organization to do work as experts to do a particular task.
Rules and regulations. Standard operating procedures govern all organizational activities to provide certainty and facilitate coordination.
Impersonal relationships between managers and employees. Manager should maintain same relations with all the employees. There is no partiality between employee and manager.
Competence. Competence is not like you hire those persons who you know. They have to choose employee according to his abilities.
A well-defined hierarchy. All positions within a bureaucracy are structured in a way that permits the higher positions to supervise and control the lower positions. This clear chain of command facilitates control and order throughout the organization
Records. A bureaucracy needs to maintain complete files regarding all its activities.
According to the Henri Fayol we have define 14 guidelines or principals for effective management. These are as follows:
1. Division of work – work should be subdivided between those workers in which they are specialise and by thus it helps to increase efficiency and effectively.
2.Authority and responsibility – These should go hand in hand. Authority is equal to responsibility.
3. Discipline – Discipline is important to increase and develop business.
4. Unit of demand – Workers should report to one superior and there should be one boss.
5. Subordination – the interest of individual should not dominate the interest of organisation.
6. Unit of direction – all level should have one manager one plan for better results.
7. Remuneration – All the methods of payment should be fair.
8. Centralization: The degree of centralization varies according to the dynamics of each organization.
9. Scalar chain – A chain of command extended from higher to lower power.
10. Order – Material and social order .Everything should be organised,
11. Equity – Employees should be treated with peace and justice.
12. Espirit de corps – Union and equity to build the strength of organisation.
13. Initiative – Encouragement of workers in order to develop their capacity.
14. Stability of tenure – Job security of workers.
The behavioural management theory is often called the human relations movement because it addresses the human dimension of work. Behavioural theorists believed that a better understanding of human behaviour at work, such as motivation, conflict, expectations, and group dynamics, improved productivity.
Hawthorne studies – Reflects the scientific management tradition which says that by improving tools and skills we can improves the efficiency.
ELTON MAYO – He was the founder of Human Research Movement. After a research at the Hawthorne works he concludes that:
Workers are important part of organisation.
Management should have personal interest in each worker.
Management should give control to each worker.
Various advantages of such steps were:
1. Work satisfaction – Workers were satisfied.
2. Their performance improved.
3. More willingness towards company goals.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs:
Abraham .H Maslow’s (1908-1970) hierarchy explains human behaviour in terms of basic requirement for their growth and survival.
Physiological needs.In this pointwe need all the food and drink and things to eat for workers physical safety
Safety needs. These needs include the need for basic security, stability, protection, and freedom from fear.
Belonging and love needs. After the physical and safety needs are satisfied and are no longer motivators, the need for belonging and love emerges as a primary motivator. a
Esteem needs. An individual must develop self-confidence and wants to achieve status, reputation, fame, and glory.
Self-actualization needs. Assuming that all the previous needs in the hierarchy are satisfied, an individual feels a need to find himself.
McGregor’s Theory X:-
The average persons are lazy and they don’t like to work they try to avoid it.
People find security instead of responsibility.
Therefore most people must be forced with the technique of punishment to work towards organisational goals.
McGregor’s Theory Y:-
Average person likes to work and fully doing his or her duties.
People mostly accept and often seek responsibility.
Commitments to the objectives are a function of rewards associated with their achievements.
Advantages of classical management
1. Hierarchical Structure – One of the advantages of classical management structure is a clear organisational in which powers and responsibilities are divided in many groups and levels which makes the worker a professions in their own work.
2. Division of labour – Work is divided into smaller tasks and given to the workers .division of labour leads to increase productivity and higher efficiency.
3. Monetary Incentive – The good workers are rewards by bonus, cheques and money. It makes the interest among the workers.
4. Autocratic leadership – Organisation has a single leader to make decision and to direct the employees.
Disadvantages of classical management
1.Economic needs – Classical management focuses that economic needs are strong to motivate workers to work but apart from this workers have social needs,esteem needs ,safety needs etc.
2. Equity – classical management emphasises to be polite and kind to the workers but there may be many a worker who does not responds to the kindness and becomes more careless.
3. Centralisation – Consolidation of management functions. Decisions are made from the top one person is superior and others do not have power to share their own views.
4. Remuneration – employees should be given fixed salary whether company is in loss or profit.
5. It is based on judgement and experiences whereas today’s world does not depends on assumptions and experiences.
Advantages of behavioural management
Increase Performance of the group.
Helped managers how to encourage and motivate their workers to work better
Management gave control to each worker over the workplace which makes the worker feel proud and their commitment to work increased.
Disadvantages of behavioural management
1. Needs – there might be different needs of different persons. Needs may vary from person to person. So workers sometime may not be motivated to work with the help of needs.
2. Work – Behavioural viewpoint only needs work not the workers safety. Workers are given the greed of needs. To fulfil their needs, the workers works more hard which may give raise to serious health injuries.
3. Satisfaction – Later this was proved that the company needs only profits not the workers satisfaction.
Difference between classical approach to management and behavioural viewpoint
1. Classical view point describes the different types of methods and it is the way to do the work or to manage it. However, behavioural points is described about the study of the sense of humour and in which the persons mind include all the human needs and there behaviours towards the work.
2. Classical management theory mainly covers to increase the productivity of a company in the cheapest way whereas in Behavioural viewpoint the focuses is not only on the productivity but are thinking about the needs and morals of the workers.
3.Classical approach to management that systematic and scientific analysis of work can only increase the productivity while according to behavioural viewpoint making good relations with the workers and praising them for exceptional work can also increase productivity.
SIMILARITIES BETWEEN CLASSICAL APROACH AND BEHAVIOURAL VIEWPOINT
1. These are the theories those both focused on the increase of productivity and they make the results same. But these theories works as in different ways like one theory through classical and other one through scientific methods. However, they motivate the same thing that is to get the maximum to maximum profit.
2. Classical and Behavioural management reveals how to direct an organisation and how to guide the workers to improve the efficiency and productivity of the organisation.
WHICH IS MORE EFFECTIVE?
According to my point of view or in my conclusion, I believe that the behavioural viewpoint is more effective rather than the classical viewpoint theory. According to this it helps the workers to work with satisfaction it does not put load on workers .it makes the interest among the workers. It pays the attention towards the workers.
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Behavioural viewpoint theory is also known as Human Relation Movement. This movement was an attempt to equip managers with the social skills they need. According to Abraham Maslow’s theory of motivation that was based on assumptions about human nature that human beings have needs which are ever completely satisfied. Human behaviour is aimed at satisfying the needs, so in order to fulfil these needs they work hard which ultimately benefits the organisation.
So as compared to classical management there is no bond of workers with the organisation whereas behavioural viewpoint has interaction, understanding and kindness among workers and organisation.
Both theories have many differences and similarities. Classical theory is based on scientific analysis whereas Behavioural viewpoint is based on human behaviour, both theories has its own importance and makes the study of management complete .but the main motive of both is maximise profit in different ways.
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