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IDEOLOGY OF INDONESIA
Ideology of Indonesia
I. Introduction Ideology
An ideology is a set of aims and ideas that directs one’s goals, expectations, and actions. An ideology can be thought of as a comprehensive vision, as a way of looking at things, as in common sense and several philosophical tendencies, or a set of ideas proposed by the dominant class of a society to all members of this society or a ‘received consciousness’ or product of socialization. The main purpose behind an ideology is to offer change in society, and adherence to a set of ideals where conformity already exists, through a normative thought process. Ideologies are systems of abstract thought as opposed to mere ideation applied to public matters and thus make this concept central to politics. Implicitly every political tendency entails an ideology whether or not it is propounded as an explicit system of thought.
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The term “ideology” was born in the highly controversial, philosophical and political debates and fights of the French Revolution and acquired several other meanings from the early days of the First French Empire to the present. The word ideology was coined by Destutt de Tracy in 1796 assembling the parts idea and -logy. He used it to refer to one aspect of his “science of ideas”. He separated three aspects, namely: ideology, general grammar and logic, considering respectively the subject, the means and the reason of this science. He argues that among these aspects ideology is the most generic term, because the science of ideas also contains the study of their expression and deduction.
Perhaps the most accessible source for the near-original meaning of ideology is Hippolyte Taine’s work. He describes ideology as rather like teaching philosophy by the Socratic Method, but without extending the vocabulary beyond what the general reader already possessed and without the examples from observation that practical science would require. Taine identifies it not just with Destutt De Tracy, but also with his milieu, and includes Condillac as one of its precursors. Tracy read the works of Locke and Condillac while he was imprisoned during the Reign of Terror.
After we know what is ideology? From the other side, we will know analysis of ideology from politics side and another side. Many point of ideology and we can analysis about ideology.
Analysis of ideology
Meta-ideology posits that ideology is a coherent system of ideas, relying upon a few basic assumptions about reality that may or may not have any factual basis, but are subjective choices that serve as the seed around which further thought grows. According to this perspective, ideologies are neither right nor wrong, but only a relativistic intellectual strategy for categorizing the world. The pluses and minuses of ideology range from the vigor and fervor of true believers to ideological infallibility. Excessive need for certitude lurks at fundamentalist levels in politics, religions, and elsewhere.
The works of George Walford and Harold Walsby, done under the heading of systematic ideology, are attempts to explore the relationships between ideology and social systems. David W. Minar describes six different ways in which the word “ideology” has been used:
1. As a collection of certain ideas with certain kinds of content, usually normative;
2. As the form or internal logical structure that ideas have within a set;
3. By the role in which ideas play in human-social interaction;
4. By the role that ideas play in the structure of an organization;
5. As meaning, whose purpose is persuasion; and
6. As the locus of social interaction, possibly.
For Willard A. Mullins, an ideology is composed of four basic characteristics:
1. it must have power over cognition
2. it must be capable of guiding one’s evaluations;
3. it must provide guidance towards action;
4. As stated above, must be logically coherent.
Mullins emphasizes that an ideology should be contrasted with the related but different issues of utopia and historical myth.
The German philosopher Christian Duncker called for a “critical reflection of the ideology concept” at 2006. In his work, he bring the concept of ideology into the foreground, as well as the closely connected concerns of epistemology and history. In this work, the term ideology is defined in terms of a system of presentations that explicitly or implicitly claim to absolute truth. Though the word “ideology” is most often found in political discourse, there are many different kinds of ideology: political, social, epistemological, ethical, and so on.
Ideology as an instrument of social reproduction
Ideologue: Karl Marx posits that a society’s dominant ideology is integral to its superstructure. In the Marxist economic base and superstructure model of society, base denotes the relations of production, and superstructure denotes the dominant ideology (religious, legal, political systems). The economic base of production determines the political superstructure of a society. Ruling class interests determine the superstructure and the nature of the justifying ideology actions feasible because the ruling control classes the means of production. Hence the great importance of the ideology justifying a society.
Chronologically, the dominant ideologies in Capitalism are:
1. classical liberalism
2. modern liberalism
3. social democracy
Corresponding to these three capitalist stages of development:
1. extensive stage
2. intensive stage
3. contemporary capitalism (late capitalism)
In the Marxist formulation of “ideology as an instrument of social reproduction” is conceptually important to the sociology of knowledge, viz. Karl Mannheim, Daniel Bell, and Jurgen Habermas. Moreover, Mannheim has developed, and progressed, from the ‘total’ but ‘special’ Marxist conception of ideology to a ‘general’ and ‘total’ ideological conception acknowledging that all ideology (including Marxism) resulted from social life, an idea developed by the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu.
“Ideology has no history” while ideology has a history interleaved with the general class struggle of society. The general form of ideology is external of ideology, “Ideas are material”, explains his materialistic attitude, which he illustrated with the “scandalous advice” of Pascal toward unbelievers: “kneel and pray, and then you will believe”, thus highlighting that beliefs and ideas are a product of social practices, and not the reverse. However, this mustn’t be misunderstood as simple behaviorism, as there may be, as Pierre Macherey put it, a “subjectivity without subject”; in other words, a form of non-personal liberty, as in Deleuze’s conception of becoming-other.
Feminism as critique of ideology
Naturalizing socially constructed patterns of behavior has always been an important mechanism in the production and reproduction of ideologies. Feminist theorists have paid close attention to these mechanisms. Adrienne Rich e.g. has shown how to understand motherhood as a social institution. However, ‘feminism’ is not a homogeneous whole, and some corners of feminist thought criticize the critique of social constructionist, by advocating that it disregards too much of human nature and natural tendencies. The debate, they say, is about the normative/naturalistic fallacy—the idea that just something ‘being’ natural does not necessarily mean it ‘ought’ to be the case.
Many political parties base their political action and program on an ideology. In social studies, a Political Ideology is a certain ethical set of ideals, principles, doctrines, myths or symbols of a social movement, institution, class, or large group that explains how society should work, and offers some political and cultural blueprint for a certain social order. A political ideology largely concerns itself with how to allocate power and to what ends it should be used. Some parties follow a certain ideology very closely, while others may take broad inspiration from a group of related ideologies without specifically embracing any one of them.
Political ideologies have two dimensions:
1. Goals: How society should work (or be arranged).
2. Methods: The most appropriate ways to achieve the ideal arrangement.
Political ideologies are concerned with many different aspects of a society, some of which are: the economy, education, health care, labor law, criminal law, the justice system, the provision of social security and social welfare, trade, the environment, minors, immigration, race, use of the military, patriotism and established religion.
There are critics who view science as an ideology in itself, or being an effective ideology, called Scientology. Some scientists respond that, while the scientific method is itself an ideology, as it is a collection of ideas, there is nothing particularly wrong or bad about it.
Other critics point out that while science itself is not a misleading ideology, there are some fields of study within science that are misleading. Two examples discussed here are in the fields of ecology and economics.
Deep ecology and modern ecology movement appear to have adopted ecological sciences as a positive ideology. Some accuse ecological economics of likewise turning scientific theory into political economy, although theses in that science can often be tested. The modern practice of green economics fuses both approaches and seems to be part science, part ideology.
Ideology and semiotic theory
Ideology “identifies a unitary object that incorporates complex sets of meanings with the social agents and processes that produced them. No other Term captures this object as well as ‘ideology’. Foucault’s ‘episteme’ is too narrow and abstract, not social enough. His ‘discourse’, popular because it covers some of ‘ideology’s’ terrain with less baggage, is too confined to verbal systems. ‘Worldview’ is too metaphysical, ‘propaganda’ too loaded. Despite or because of its contradictions, ‘ideology’ still plays a key role in semiotics oriented to social, political life”. Authors such as Michael Freeden have also recently incorporated a semantic analysis to the study of ideologies.
We know Pancasila is our Ideology, from the research ideology Indonesia have many point of view. We can see ideology from Pancasila according Etymologist, according history, according Terminologies. Besides that we can see meaning about Pancasila from Soekarno, Muhammad Yamin, and Jakarta charter.
Pancasila as an ideology as the state ideals or the ideals that became the basis for a theory or system of state for all peoples and nations of Indonesia, as well as a life goal Indonesian base on TAP. MPR XVIII/MPR/1998 of MPR Revocation of P4, emphasized that Pancasila is the foundation of the Republic of Indonesia which have carried out consistently in the life of nation and state.
The word is derived from Pancasila Sansakerta (Buddhism) that is required to achieve Nirvana five Basic Doctrine, namely
1. Do not take a life of living things / Prohibited kill.
2. Do not take the goods of others / No stealing
3. Do not touch sex / Prohibited commit adultery
4. Do not say fake / forbidden to lie / lied.
5. Never mind that eliminates / prohibited liquor.
Adapted by the Javanese to 5 M = Opium/ drunk, Thiet/ steal, chase after women./ Girl, Playing/ Gambling, Mateni / Kill.
Pancasila words originally contained in the library of the Buddhist Tripitaka in the book where the teaching of the Buddhist is a moral teaching to reach nirvana / heaven through the contents of five Pancasila
On 01 June 1945 was Ir. Sukarno’s speech without notes on the formulation of Pancasila as the Basic State. On August 17, 1945 Indonesia proclaimed independence, then the next day August 18, 1945 declared including the 1945 opening statement in which there is in it as a Basic Principle 5 State of the Pancasila as name. Since then Indonesian Pancasila became common. So although the 4th paragraph of the Preamble the Constitution contained no term 45 Pancasila is basic but the State of RI is called the term of this Pancasila interpretation (translation) especially in the context of the historical formation of the State of formula.
III. Understanding of Pancasila in Terminologies
Proclamation of August 17, 1945 has given birth to the State of RI State Equipment complete PPKI tools a hearing on August 18, 1945 and successfully passed the Constitution in section four which consists of opening the 4th paragraph of Pancasila formulation contained therein. Formulation of Pancasila is a legitimate and constitutional right as the basis of the state of RI PPKI passed by the representative of the entire people of Indonesia. Pancasila shaped:
1. Hierarchical (tiered)
A. Pancasila by Mr. Moh Yamin is presented in the trial BPUPKI on May 29, 1945 the following contents:
5. Social Prosperity
B. Pancasila by Ir. Sukarno delivered on June 1, 1945 date at the trial BPUPKI, as follows:
1. Nationalistic Indonesia
4. Social Prosperity
President proposes to 5 Principles can be squeezed into Trisila namely:
1. Socio National: Nationalism and Internationalism;
2. Socio Democracy: Democracy with the welfare of the people;
And still according to Ir. Soekarno Trisila still be squeezed into the Ekasila or the point is Satusila Mutual Aid.
C. Five Principles according to the Jakarta Charter adopted on June 22, 1945 the following formula:
1. Belief in the Islamic obligation to run a follower-followers;
2. Humanity is just and civilized;
3. Unity of Indonesia;
4. Democracy guided by the wisdom and deliberation amongst representatives;
5. Social justice for all people of Indonesia;
Conclusion of the various terms of Pancasila is a legitimate and constitutional right of
Pancasila which is listed in the Preamble UUD 45, it is strengthened by the MPRS decree and Presidential Instruction No. NO.XXI/MPRS/1966. 12 dated 13 April 1968 which confirms that the pronunciation, writing and formulation of the State of RI Pancasila legitimate and correct which is as stated in the Preamble Uud 1945.
After that, we can know point of view about ideology of Indonesia or Pancasila from philosophy of pancasila, the original philosophy, base on Soekarno speech, base on Soeharto speech,
After we knew philosophy of Indonesia is Pancasila. In fact the definition of philosophy in the philosophy of Pancasila has been modified and interpreted differently by some philosophers Indonesia. Pancasila discourse made since 1945. Pancasila philosophy is always updated in accordance with the “demand” of the ruling regime, so that Pancasila is different from time to time. Originality of Pancasila philosophy.
Philosophy of Pancasila and developed by Sukarno from 1955 until the end of his rule in1965. At the time of Sukarno always stated that the original philosophy of Pancasila Indonesia is taken from the culture and traditions of cultural acculturation Indonesia and India (Hindu-Buddhist), Western (Christian), and Arabic (Islamic). According to Sukarno’s “Belief” is a native of Indonesia, “Justice Social” inspired by the concept of Messiah. Sukarno was never mentioned or propagandizes “Unity”. That’s statement It is from Soeharto version pancasila Philosophy.
Based on the above explanation is understanding the general philosophy of Pancasila is the result of thinking / thinking deeply of the Indonesian people who are considered, trusted and believed to be something the truest, most just, most wise, best and most suitable for the Indonesian nation.
Between distinguished religious philosophy and non-religious, is belonging. These means that Pancasila philosophy in terms of wisdom and truth to know the absolute truth that comes from God Almighty (religious truth), and both acknowledge the limitations of human capabilities, including the capacity to think.
If differentiated in terms of theoretical philosophy and philosophy in a practical sense, on categories in philosophy Pancasila practical sense. This means that the philosophy of Pancasila in the conduct of thinking deeply, not only aimed at seeking truth and wisdom, not just for fulfill desire to know from people who are not inexhaustible, but also and above all the tangible results of thinking Pancasila philosophy is used as a guideline daily life . That life can achieve physical and spiritual happiness, both in this world and the Hereafter.
Next measure the philosophy of Pancasila truth and terraced following:
1. Truth senses(common knowledge)
2. Scientific truth(sciences)
3. Philosophical truth(philosophy)
4. Religious truth(religion)
After us understanding about Ideology, now we move to division of ideology. Ideology have two big division, they are Open Ideology and closed Ideology.
1. Opened Ideology
Characteristic of open ideology is that the values and ideals are not imposed from the outside, but dug up and taken from the wealth of spiritual, moral and cultural community itself. Essence of community consensus, not created by the state, but is found in their community. Therefore, an open ideology is the property of all citizens and communities can find themselves in it. Ideology is open not only justifiable but necessary. The basic value of the modern stated of life and basic attitudes.
An ideology is a natural source and is rooted in the worldview and philosophy of life of the nation. Thus, the ideology will be developed in accordance with the development of the intelligence community and national life. This is a prerequisite for an ideology. Unlike the case with the imported ideology, which would be unnatural (artificial) and to some extent requires coercion by a small group of people (minorities) who imported ideology.
Pancasila is rooted in the worldview and philosophy of the nation, so that it meets requirements as an open ideology. Despite an ideology that is open, doesn’t mean that openness is in such a way as to destroy or negate the ideology itself, which is an illogical. An ideology as a summary of the basic ideas are integrated and round without contradiction or contradictory in its aspects.
Transparency divers three factors of Ideology Pancasila
a. In the fact, national development processes and community dynamics rapidly growing.
b. In the fact show, that the Ideological bankruptcy of the closed and freezing tends to dim due to his own development.
c. Our experiences political history in the past.
d. Willing to strengthen awareness of the basic values of Pancasila which is internal.
Pancasila ideology of openness in its application primarily intended to form a dynamic thinking and conceptual in the modern world. We know there are three levels of value, the basic values that do not change the instrumental value as a means of realizing the basic values that can change according to circumstances and the practical value of the actual implementation of the real. Pancasila values outlined in the norms – the norms contained Pancasila and reflected in the Preamble of the 1945 Constitution. Value or the basic norms contained in the Preamble of the 1945 Constitution should not be changed or modified. Because it is a choice and the resulting consensus that the basic rule is the fundamental basis of the state. Embodiment or implementation of instrumental values and practical values must still contain the soul and the spirit of the same basic value.
2. Closed Ideology
Closed is the teaching of ideology or world view or philosophy that determines the purposes and norms of political and social, is ordained as a truth that should not be questioned again, but must be accepted as something already made and to be obeyed. Truth of a closed ideology should not be questioned based on the values or moral. Dogmatic and a priori content that cannot be changed or modified based on social experience. Because of this ideology that tolerates no worldview or other values.
Characteristic “Ideology closed a closed ideology a few recognizable features” Ideology is not the ideals that have been living in the community, but of the ideals of an underlying group. Of a program to change and renew the community, Ideology is the enemy of tradition closed. If the group managed to seize political power, ideology will be imposed on society.
Naturally, such a closed ideology to be imposed and applied by society adhered to certain elites, which means are run by authoritarian ways. Ideology is totalitarian normally closed, so concerns the whole of life. Which soon dominated the field completely and used for the spread of that ideology is a field that affects the attitudes of society, field of information to the mass and the other.
Example ideology closed IPDN violence that occurred long before the case cliff Munthu Wahyu Hidayat who becomes victims of violence in IPDN. IPDN violence ingrained within the service was due some IPDN doctrine incorrectly interpret the service IPDN like touch the heart, if you cannot touch the solar plexus, if you cannot straighten break.
Ideological characteristics of open and closed ideology are:
a. are the ideals that have been living in the community.
b. Form the values and ideals that come from within the community itself.
c. The results of consultation and consensus society.
d. Is dynamic and reformist.
a. Is not goals that have been living in the community.
b. Instead of values and ideals.
c. Trust and rigid ideological loyalty.
d. Consists of concrete and operational demands posed absolutely.
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According to Kaelan, the values contained in the ideology of Pancasila as an ideology is open are as follows:
a) The basic value, that is the essence of the five precepts of Pancasila.
b) The instrumental value, which is the direction, policy strategies, goals and implementation agency.
c) Practical value, which is a realization of instrumental values in a realization that is the real practice, in everyday life in the community, nation and state.
Background of Ideology Indonesia/Pancasila
I. Background of Pancasila
BPUPKI 2 times the court held. At the First Session of the proposal appears to concept ideology, including:
a) Mr. Muh. Yamin (May 29, 1945)
In his speech on May 29, 1945 Muh. Yamin basic formula proposed candidate countries as follows:
III. Elves Godhead
IV. Populist (deliberative, wisdom)
V. Welfare (social justice).
In addition to the end of his speech, Muh. Yamin submit manuscripts as an attachment is a draft proposal contains a statement while the Constitution RI .
b) Prof. Dr. Supomo (May 31, 1945)
In his speech Prof. Dr. Supomo put tepid-state theory as follows:
1. The theory of individual countries (individualistic)
2. Understand the state class (class theory)
3. Understand intergalactic country.
Further, in relation to the basic philosophy of the Indonesian state proposed Soepomo things about: unity, family, inner and outer balance, consultation, justice of the people.
c) Ir. Sukarno (June 1, 1945)
in this case Ir. Sukarno delivered state basis of five principles that basically namely:
1. Nationalism (nationality Indonesia)
2. Internationalism (humanity)
3. Social Prosperity
4. Belief in one God.
He also suggested that Pancasila is the philosophical basis of the state and outlook of the nation of Indonesia.
Session Meeting BPUPKI (first) that gave birth to the Jakarta Charter that declared on June 22, 1945 and signed by a small committee consisting BPUPKI formation of 9 people and is popular with the “committee of nine” whose members are as follows:
II. Apply Ideology to our life
As we know Pancasila Indonesia has opened and closed ideology. And we have been analyzing that ideology of Indonesia. So after we know about ideology, we must implement to our life. We have been already known in our country has five principles, and there are first principles until fifth principles:
1. Believe in one and only God/ the one lordship
2. Just and civilized humanity
3. The unity of Indonesia
4. Democracy which is guided by inner wisdom in the unanimity arising out of deliberation.
5. Social justice for the whole people of Indonesia
In our life, automatically we can apply one or two principles. But it’s not enough for implement well ideology, because a lot of people just apply one or two principles, it’s not enough. As we know, in this era a lot of influenced from another country. Where the other country may be bring bad influenced or bad culture for Indonesian. But some bring a good influenced (we can see in another explain).
We already know what the best for our life, and for Indonesian we must apply the first principles until fifth principles. Much method to apply that to our life, we can starts from the easy thing. But maybe somebody think is not important. If we want to know, if we apply that principle, we can see how to help people, respect the other people and so on. Its example some applying Pancasila in our life.
The first principle: believe in one and only God/the one lordship
a. Respect the other religions.
b. Always pray.
c. Do the good things.
d. May not kill.
The second principle: Justice civilized and humanity
a. Don’t kill people.
b. Must be fair with the other people.
c. Help or do social activities.
d. Help each other.
The third principle: The unity of Indonesia
a. Filter bad influence form the other country.
b. Build Indonesia together to be a good country.
c. Never have bad feeling such us arrogance, joules, and etc.
d. Protect Indonesia together.
The fourth principles: Democracy which is guided by inner wisdom in the unanimity arising out of deliberations.
a. Sit together to get agreement.
b. Solve problem together.
c. We must hear opinion from the other side.
d. Take the best opinion for get the best.
The fifth principle: social justice for the whole people of Indonesia
a. All citizens in Indonesia have right for gets job and life with expediently
b. Every citizen compulsorily gets educations.
c. Every citizen deserve to gets healthcare.
All principles, from first principles until fifth principles are connected and cannot separated. Because pancasila without first principles or the other principles incomplete. We should practice all principles.
How important is Pancasila for Indonesia
Pancasila in Indonesia is very important, because Ideology Indonesia or Pancasila can awaken our spirit to build Indonesia to be better country than another country, provide guidance about the world and its content and build spirit to struggle to move against the occupation.
Pancasila is the most important in Indonesia because Pancasila is Ideology for Indonesia, where that ideology has function for filter influence from Indonesia. Many people who study or work in neighbor country. When they back to Indonesia, they take along until they back to Indonesia. Because they has a long time to stayed in neighbors country, because that they familiar with western style.
That influence had some impacts for Indonesia. The impact for Indonesia such us, Indonesian used a sexy clothes, used harsh words, more popular modern dance than traditional dance, and so on. Many culture in Indonesia where must we protect and we continue because a lot culture in Indonesia taken by another country. So, we must protect our culture.
Impact for our relationship with the other country is the other country see our country is not good country because much Indonesian used a bad attitude. Maybe relationship between Indonesia with the other country is not good and so on. So, we must used a good attitude and filter influence from the other country, because influence from the other country is not good for Indonesian where Indonesia have religion and have principles for build good country.
How to filter influence from another country
Like we know, some influence from the other county is bad but, some influence from the other country good for development in our country. Why we must filter influence from the other country? Almost people in Indonesia used bad attitude, where that attitude from the other country.
As we know those influences have a right side and the wrong side. We can use the right side but for the wrong side we must remove from Indonesia. We can use Ideology of Indonesia or Pancasila. Many ways can we use to remove that influence from Indonesia. For the example we can use pancasila. We can see, what is having same meaning with the first principles or not. If not we can remove from our country, but if yes we can save for our country.
Many point of view to look which one the right or wrong attitude. Example for the wrong side are used a harsh word, used sexy style from western, almost people more often eat junk food and so on. Example for the right side are Indonesia have a new style or mode, now world growth, and so on.
The impact if Indonesia not filter the influence from the other country is Indonesian and the youth will have a bad attitude and may be no one can comply with rules in Indonesia. So, we should filter influence from the other country.
Now we know point of view from politic side, background of pancasila, the historical, how to filter influence from the other country, example from wrong side and the right side, and what impact if Indonesia not filter the influence from another country, why we must filter influence from the other country.
We must protect our country from the other influence, where the influence is bad and we must protect our culture, because many our neighbor country want take our culture from Indonesia. So, we must keep and take care our country together.
from book pendidikan kewarganegaraan II untuk SMK
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