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Automatic System Water Tap Computer Science Essay

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Environmental Sciences
Wordcount: 2713 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

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Nowadays, most people want a life that modern life requires that they are easy, fast and environmentally friendly. As we know the use of sinks at this time is still using the old system of using mechanical taps controlled by humans. As we can see today many public toilets using a box to put the liquid soap which they need a space to put the equipment. Users also often face the problem where it is easily damaged by the negligence of other users. Users of public toilets are usually provided with a tissue to dry her hands, but with rapidly developing technology and the desire to save the use of natural resources have changed the tissue with blower where they only use the hot wind pressure which is more environmentally friendly. However, we know the use of these devices usually require a space to stand.

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1.2 Problem Statement

Usually, most of the water tap in the market usually use old system where it using manually control to turn on or turn off the system [1]. When the users using that system they must use their hand to open or close the water tap and the water tap valve easy to damage because when the users always turn strongly to open or close the tap. This system is not efficient because water wastage easy to occur because at the time between to open the tap and wash their hand the water has already been wasted [1-3]. It same when we want to close it and if we forgot to close the water tap it will make waste become more critical [2-3]. As we can see usage of sink only focus on one usage it is all about water. Looking at the development of technology today usage of sink should not be focused on water use only because user needs something their use can give many benefit when they use it. Another disadvantages for the system is when users wash their hands, their hands not very clean because they still have a direct contact to the messy water tap where it expose to the bacteria [4].

1.3 Objectives

The objectives of this project are:

To change manually system water tap become automatic system water tap.

To control three different types of output with just one selector switch.

To reduce wastage of water that always occurs at water taps.

To reduce direct contact to the device for prevent from bacteria.

1.4 Project Scope

These following scopes are listed to ensure the project is heading the right direction and achieve the objectives:

This system uses a microcontroller PIC 16F877A where the PIC programmed by C language using Proteus 7 Professional, common control v.5.82, Shell v.6.00 and mikroElektronika C compiler for Microchip PIC microcontrollers Version:

The systems have a selector switch where the selector used to choose the type of output depend on what we need.

This system is equipped with infrared motion detector where the infrared is using to detect the movement around the water tap and it is input for this system because the system will be operates when a movement has in designated areas.

By using infrared motion detector users need only place their hands under the water tap and after the detector detect the movement in designated area the output will come out.



2.1 Overview.

These chapters state all the studies and reviews from previous projects or journal and sources that help to successfully design, built and implement the entire task during this digital water tap base liquid control project. The studies include improvement and modification of design from previous project. Hardware section will tackle on mechanical, electrical and electronic parts while software section will be cover the studies on software development tools that are used.

2.2 Tap water control apparatus.

An apparatus capable of being installed onto an existing single spout of plumbing system where in the spout receives tap water from valves that adjust flow rates from separate lines of hot and cold water utilizes a control valve that attaches to the single spout. The control valve is operated by foot pedal which communicates with the control valve by cable whose path in constrained by guides and rollers [5].untitled4.JPG

Picture description:

1.Spring-biased foot


2. Cable.

3. Sink basin.

4. Flow control valve.

5. Apparatus.

6. Attaching to


Figure 2.2.1: Tap water control apparatus layout.

2.3 Automatic faucet.

An automatic faucet has a sensor infrared to start and stop discharging water automatically. Only hand can be detected accurately without detecting a washbowl (chinaware) and water stream erroneously. The sensor comprises a light emitter and a light receiver. The directional axis of a detection region (in which the light emitting region of the light emitter and the receiving region of the light receiver are overlapped with each other) intersects the discharged water steam and further the intersection angle between both is adjusted less than 70 degrees. The reflected light levels detected by the light receiver are sampled periodically to calculate an average value and a variance value on the basis of at least eight most update sampled data. Water discharge is started and stopped on the basis of the calculation average value and the variance [6].


Picture description:

1. Infrared motion detector.

2. Nozzle.

3. Inlet water.

4. Sink basin.

Figure 2.3.1: automatic faucet layout.

2.4 Hand free tap.

With the design of hands free faucet, it wills convenience the elderly or the disabilities that do not have a strong grip tap knobs and people can ease the worry of getting a slip onto ground. As well as water and energy saving are being able to manage the water resources. The idea will be archived by hands are place into infrared light beam, the solenoid valve opens and allows tap water to flow out. When it reach for about 4 seconds, water turn off and solenoid valve resets for the next user. The hand free system can be operating from the battery and an infrared detector. However other alternatives such as the main electricity and the ultrasonic sensor can be used to operate the hand free system [4].

Figure 2.4.1: Mechanical metering faucet.

2.5 Infrared motion detector

Detection involves recognition of the presence of a particular class of objects of interest in space and time. In the same space and time will be located other objects whose characteristics differ little from those of interest. Therefore, in general a, detection system must differentiate between similar objects. Differentiation between such objects is on the basis of their spatial and spectral characteristics. This differentiation is accomplished by power, space and frequency filtering. Power filtering typically is accomplished by use of a threshold stage, a device amenable to simple, general mathematical description [7].

A detection system repeatedly scans a region in space while seeking to detect the presence of an object interest target. A criterion for the effectiveness with which a particular detection system accomplishes its mission is the range at which it will detect an object of interest. Choice of a basic system structure during preliminary design, selection of design parameters during detailed design of a specific system, and evaluation of the functioning of a specific system during a test program are greatly facilitated by a mathematical model which allows a realistic prediction of detection range [7].

2.6 Servo motor selection criterion for mechatronic application

Modern mechatronic applications often involve complex motions, resulting in highly dynamic motor loads. The selection of an appropriate motor is based on the characteristics of the load, besides other technical, as well as economic, considerations. However, motor characteristics, such as rotor inertia, affect the motor load, which complicates the analysis. The selection criterion presented in this paper separates the motor characteristics from the load characteristics and its graphical representation facilitates the feasibility check of a certain drive and the comparison between different systems. In addition, it yields the range of possible transmission ratios. The method is illustrated with an industrial case study [8].



3.1 Overview.

This chapter describes understanding the objective and planning the design by performing some management method to keep this project stand on the right track. To ensure digital water tap base liquid control prototype successfully developed, some tasks have must been performed following sequence of work where it divided by four stage is project planning, design of circuit, hardware and software. For support tools such as PIC software, PIC kits and USB programmer will be used to assist on software and hardware development.

3.2 Hardware design.

Hardware design involve the designing of digital water tap base liquid control that consists of four major unit which is microcontroller unit, sensing unit, motor unit and power supply unit. The microcontroller unit functions as interface for input and output system and its peripheral extensions is the major responsible component for the functionality of an instrument. The sensing unit is used to measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument. The usage of motor unit consist from two different application is pump and blower. The power supply unit, it plays major rules in distributing the power to the other unit according to the requirement of the system such as if the microcontroller requires 5V voltage, the power supply must provide 5V supply to the microcontroller.

3.2.1 PIC microcontroller.

The PIC16F877A is from the PIC16 microcontroller family, with the some advantages is a high computational performance at an economical price and the addition of high endurance and Enhanced Flash Memory. Then added features include eight additional instructions that augment indirect and indexed addressing operations and the implementation of Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode for many of the standard PIC16 instructions. In addition to these features, the PIC16F877A introduces design enhancements that make power sensitive applications to project and can build microcontroller a logical device for many high-performances. The PIC16F877A make use of NanoWatt technology that incorporates a range of features that can significantly reduce power and voltage consumption during operation includes:

Alternate run modes.

Multiple idle modes.

On the fly mode switching.

Lower consumption in key modules.

Extended instruction set.

3.2.2 Infrared motion detector.

The usage of IR detector because they operate by using a type of electromagnetic wave that is invisible to human eyes, harmless to users, and is naturally emitted by all objects. It sense heat and can detect an intruder radiating body heat. Most infrared detectors are passive, meaning they do not send out signals but merely receive signals, such as changes in temperature [7]. Microwave and ultrasonic detectors are active that is they send out waves of energy and receive waves reflected back by objects. Any disturbance in the reflected waves caused by a moving object will make false detection.

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3.2.3 Servo motor.

In order to select a motor of an appropriate size, speed and torque requirements have to be known first. Servo motors have enough speed, peak torque and rms torque capabilities, along with optimal gearing arrangement, to meet the load requirement as well as the cost objective. Equally important is selecting the type and size of the drive and power supply to meet the system requirements. Unfortunately, there is no simple straightforward procedure in servo system component selection due to complexity and variety of motor types, power transmission devices and other peripheral components available in the market [8]. The reason why servo motor is used in this project is because it’s easy to control with PIC microcontroller. 12 volt require as a source to this motor.

3.3 Software implement.

The combination between all of the hardware has to be defined and forecasted in order to predict the outcome. Conventionally designing process requires only the estimation based on theoretical understanding. With the help of assisted software, simulation can be done. From this simulation result, it gives the guideline flexibility to refine the circuit for example the outcome or the result does not satisfy the requirement.

For this project a number of software will be used such as MPLAB v8.33 and mikroC v8.2. This software not only helps to speed up the process of designing, but also avoid unnecessary mistake before the actual thing is build.

3.3.1 MPLAB software

The nature of this project, is that it users PIC as a controller, controlling the interaction between all input and output. This PIC is requires a set of language in order to work, and for this project the language that will be use is C language. The reason behind this is because C use syntax that is very much like a human term works instead other languages that are more native to machine language. For instance, the syntax “else” in C language really means else in human term, making it much more convenient to troubleshoot.

Thus, this language has to be compiled before it can be downloaded into the PIC. MPLAB will be used as a compiler for this project.

3.3.2 MikroC software.

MikroC v8.0 software is developed by MikroElektronika Company. Program the PIC microcontroller become easy when using mikroC software where it uses C language and the library from this mikroC is to understanding because some instruction has an example command with complete circuit. It gave easy understanding to beginner programmer to start their own program.

3.4 Project block diagram.

Selector switch:

– using waterproof switch to prevent short circuit.

– have three selection options.


Digital-selector konvertirano.jpg





Infrared motion detector:

– Not have many false detection because passive detector.

– It can sense heat that give benefit to sense hand movement.

– Detection in small range.MFG_EKMAxxxx12.jpg

3images (1).jpg

PIC microcontroller:

– High computational performance at an economical price.

– The instruction can build in C language.

– Can save many instruction.

– Become brain to this system because control all the


4 untitled34.JPG

Tap system:

– This system includes motor pump and blower.

– Two type motor pump:

1. Control water inlet.

2. Control quantity of output soap.

– Motor blower is uses to supply hot air to make hand dry.


Preliminary result

No more waste problem that will occur because the system itself will off if no users are using it, it also saves space and costs of the old system because the system was equipped with three types of control namely water, soap and blower by the project in response to the demands of society who want the technology.



In PSM 1 all the literature review regarding this project are been studied so at the end of PSM 1 it can be summarized that the objectives of the project will be fulfilled in the next PSM 2, which is to combine all the circuit, complete the whole program and also design and build the prototype of tap system for digital water tap base liquid control. This progress will need more commitment and efforts. In conjunction to achieve that, scope and objectives of this project will be the guideline.


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