Wine is made from fermented grape traditionally. It is has a long history that can be traced back to thousands of years and now it becomes one of the most popular alcoholic beverages in the world. And the red wine is the top-selling product in the wine market. The constituent of red wine is very complex (nearly 1000 components), the major component of the red wine is ethanol (besides water) and it also contains tannin and acids. In recent years, people pay more attention to food safety and nutrition. During a lot of experiments, we found out that compare with the people who drinking to excess or people who don’t drink at all, the people who drinking moderately every day have the lower mortality. That means some compounds in red wine have positive effects for human health. In this paper, we will focus on three types of compounds, such as ethanol, the antioxidant– polyphenol and bioactive peptides.
Ethanol also called alcohol is a major component in the alcoholic beverage. Red wine contain 10-30% Ethanol.
A number of epidemiologic studies in various countries consistently show substantial (at least 30% ) protection against coronary heart disease by moderate amounts of alcohol (10-40g/day). Protection by moderate alcohol drinking also probably extends to ischemic strokes and ischemic damage to the extremities and possibly to diabetes mellitus and other conditions. Total mortality is slightly favorably affected in middle-aged and older moderate drinkers as compared to abstainers.
Mechanisms underlying an antithrombotic effect of alcohol are becoming established. Alcohol consumption significantly and consistently raises the plasma levels of the antiatherogenic HDL cholesterol. Further, alcohol may reduce the tendency to thrombosis (e.g., plasma fibrinogen levels are decreased, while the efficiency of fibrinolytic pathways is improved), improve endothelial function, and reduce insulin resistance.
For instance, limited consumption of one to two glasses of wine per day can help prevent coronary and vascular diseases. (Phillips, 2003).
Protective Roles of Ethanol. Epidemiologic research seeks to uncover trends established within large populations that identify current health phenomena of interest to the scientific community. Through the identification and characterization of such events, researchers can focus their efforts on explaining the observed population trends. Grønbæk et al. (11) examined the association between intake of different types of alcoholic drinks and mortality in a population of 13,000 men and women between the ages of 30 and 79 y. In this population, the relative risk of death from CVD was reduced from 1.00 in nondrinkers to 0.4 for those who drank 3-5 glasses of wine/d. With respect to the intake of beer, 3-5 bottles/d conveyed a reduction in risk of 0.72 compared with not drinking beer. Conversely, the results related to the intake of distilled alcohol products exhibited different trends, mainly that weekly or daily consumption actually increased the relative risk of CVD to 1.08 and 1.35, respectively. From these results, Grønbæk et al. (11) surmised that the J- or U-shaped relation between alcohol intake and mortality, historically related to the beneficial and harmful effects of ethanol, might be a result of a combination of the individual attributes of wine, beer and spirits. Further, in that study, individuals consuming 3-5 glasses of wine/d possessed half the risk of dying as those who never drank wine. In contrast, consumption of 3-5 drinks of spirits/d was associated with increased mortality. Moreover, these researchers concluded that light and moderate wine drinking is associated with a dose-dependent decrease in all-cause mortality that is attributed to a decrease in cardiovascular-related disease. Truelson et al. (13) utilized a cohort study to examine the influence of alcohol intake and the different types of alcohol on risk of first-ever stroke in a large Danish population. After adjusting for confounding factors, subjects who drank wine weekly were found to have a significantly lower risk of stroke. Meanwhile, the difference was marginally significant for subjects reporting daily consumption of wine. The intake of neither beer nor spirits was associated with a change in risk. From the data outlined, Truelson et al. (13) concluded that the moderate intake of wine is associated with a lower risk of stroke. Renaud et al. (12) evaluated the effect on mortality of wine drinking in Eastern France. The analysis was conducted among 34,014 men aged 40-60 y, between 1978 and 1983. After adjustment
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for confounders, the authors established that a decreased risk of 27-39% for both CVD and coronary heart disease (CHD) was evident at all levels of alcohol intake .22 g/d, ;2 glasses of wine. The authors concluded that moderate intake of alcohol, mainly in the form of wine, appears to protect from death due to CVD and CHD, in addition to other causes. In examining the results and conclusions of these epidemiologic studies, the magnitude of the sample size must not cloud limitations, which are inherently present. The point at which analysis of the robustness of these studies becomes difficult concerns the method of obtaining information from the respondents. The use of broad-based questionnaire systems is open to scrutiny because of the increased risk of respondent bias; thus data interpretation becomes uncertain (17). This style of research is beneficial for noting trends within a large population, but it is difficult to establish whether in fact observed trends are representative of what occurs within the population.
The ability to judge whether an association exists between a type of alcoholic drink and CVD requires observational data in which individual intake can be linked directly to CVD (3,18). These types of data have not been presented within the limits of the epidemiologic studies examined. The cohort studies examined identify a strong inverse association between alcohol intake and CVD (11-13). Using the results presented, the authors implied that a single type of alcoholic beverage, in this case red wine, provides the most benefit of all to CVD. A major difficulty with these studies is the possible different drinking patterns and aspects of lifestyle correlated with choice of drink within particular populations. In these studies in which wine intake was significantly associated with a reduced risk of CVD, wine was normally consumed by much of the population within a healthy range, usually 1-2 drinks/d. Another consideration is whether beverages were consumed during meal time, or more irregularly throughout the day. Such differences in consumption patterns may also affect the observed health benefits (3,5,13,16,17).
Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease
Polyphenol—— antioxidant properties
Antioxidant effects of phenolic components of wine (especially red wine) may contribute to the antiatherosclerotic action of this beverage, by modulation of LDL oxidation and reduction of formation, growth, and maturation of the atherosclerotic plaques. Such antioxidant actions might also play a role in reduction of risk of cancer. Furthermore, there are substantial data supporting hypothetical additional benefit by wine via inhibition of thrombosis and improved endothelial function. Some epidemiologic data, including international comparisons and several prospective studies, support greater benefit from wine drinking than from other beverage types, but there is no epidemiologic consensus on the issue. The health habits and drinking patterns of wine drinkers tend to be favorable, making interpretation difficult. The issue of additional benefit by wine must be considered unresolved.
Recent medical research and studies also indicate that reasonable consumption of wine could lower the chances of developing diseases such as ischemic stokes, diabetes, gallstones, and colorectal and gastric cancer (Franson, 2007)
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